Why Full Frame DSLRs Are Called 35 mm

“Full frame” DSLRs have the same image size as the most popular film size, which was called 35 mm. Where does “35 mm” come from? The image frame size is 24 mm x 36 mm, so it’s not that. Its diagonal is 43.3 mm, so it’s not that, either. Come to find out, 35 mm is the width of the film strip to the outside of the sprocket holes, as shown in this photograph.Since all lenses and image sizes are the same between 35 mm film and full frame DSLR cameras, the 35 mm equivalent name is used for full frame DSLRs, even though nothing measures 35 mm in their image frames.

While the “35 mm” designation has no direct relevance to the digital sensor size, it is still useful when referring to the focal length of lens. The diagonal, horizontal, and vertical angles of view of a given lens are the same with a full-frame digital sensor as they are on a 35 mm film camera. For example, the ZEISS Milvus 50 mm f/2 macro lens has a horizontal angle of view of 38 degrees on a full-frame digital sensor just as it does on a 35 mm film camera. The cropped sensor equivalent values will be the subject of another post.

©2018 Tom Vadnais Photography. All Rights Reserved.

ZEISS Milvus 15 mm, 18 mm, 21 mm, and 25 mm Lenses

ZEISS makes four ultra-wide Milvus lenses: 2.8/15 mm, 2.8/18 mm, 2.8/21 mm, and 1.4/25 mm. Can there be an appreciable difference with only a three or four millimeter focal length change between lenses? After all, if you have a 100-400 mm zoom lens, you probably couldn’t even notice the difference between 344 and 348 mm focal lengths. But you’ll see that just a couple millimeters makes quite a difference with very wide angle lenses.

I made this series of photographs on a sunny day with very contrasty light to show how the four lenses handle very difficult lighting conditions. Polarizing filters somewhat tempered the extreme contrasts. I used Heliopan High-Transmission polarizers for the 18, 21, and 25 mm lenses, and a ZEISS polarizer for the 15 mm lens. Before I made these JPEGs from the raw images, I reduced highlights by 30 in Adobe Camera Raw (ACR) to make sure the clouds wouldn’t blow out when converted. Otherwise, these raw images were straight from the camera. All were made at f/8 on a full-frame Nikon D850 DSLR.

Note how much more of the trees you can see at both edges of the frame with the wider lenses. Also, notice how City Hall seems to shrink and recede as the lenses get wider.

Roswell, GA, City Hall (ZEISS Milvus 1.4/25 mm lens on Nikon D850.)

Roswell, GA, City Hall (ZEISS Milvus 2.8/21 mm lens on Nikon D850.)

Roswell, GA, City Hall (ZEISS Milvus 2.8/18 mm lens on Nikon D850.)

Roswell, GA, City Hall (ZEISS Milvus 2.8/15 mm lens on Nikon D850.)

Here are the diagonal/horizontal/vertical angles of view for these four lenses:

2.8/15  110°/100°/76°

2.8/18  100°/89°/67°

2.8/21  90°/81°/59°

1.4/25  81°/71°/50°

Comparing the chart to the photographs shows that for extreme wide angle lenses, the field of view changes noticeably for every 10° diagonal angle of view. So how do you decide which lens(es) to get?

All four lenses are spectacularly sharp, and all exhibit the famous ZEISS micro-contrast and consistent color. They also all show little distortion with the appropriate Lens Correction selection in ACR. (Note: most recent DSLRs have in-camera lens corrections for JPEGs. Raw image lens corrections are handled in raw conversion software, such as ACR and Lightroom.)

As you can see, the wider the lens, the larger the foreground and the smaller the subject become. (Of course this is true regardless of the brand of the lenses.) Look at how much more of the trees at either edge of the image are visible with wider focal lengths. But even though there are significant differences in the images, unless you do a lot of very wide angle shooting (think architecture and interiors), it is unlikely you’ll need all four of these lenses.

If you primarily shoot landscapes, including Milky Way photos at night, you might find the 15 and 21 mm lenses the best combination. For large scale and intimate landscapes, the 18 and 25 mm lens pair might be most useful. If you’re just venturing into wide-angle shooting, the 25 mm lens will likely be the most versatile. It’s also one of the sharpest and most desirable lenses ever made. It’s one you’ll keep for a lifetime.

As always, it is best to try these out for yourselves. I highly recommend renting them individually or in groups before purchasing any of them.

©2018 Tom Vadnais Photography. All Rights Reserved.

Shoot It Now, One More Time

Here’s another example of how an unexpected change can affect a photographic subject for many years.

There is a great water wheel at Cable Mill in Cades Cove in the Smokies. It had been quite photogenic, especially with its thick coating of moss. Here’s an image of the wheel made in April 2014.

Cades Cove Grist Mill with moss. (Made 04/30/14 with Nikon 70-200mm f/2.8 lens at 85mm on Nikon D800E.)

This photograph of the wheel was made in May 2018.

Cades Cove Grist Mill with new moss-free boards. (Made 05/03/18 with ZEISS Otus 85mm f/1.4 on Nikon D850.)

The paddle boards had recently been replaced, making the wheel much less photogenic. It will be years until moss fully coats the wheel again. In fact, there was no reason for me to even make this photo except to illustrate what can happen if you don’t make an image when you first see the possibility.

If you make an image, you can always make a better one later if the light, the conditions, or your equipment are better. If the subject later changes or is gone, you’ll always regret not having made the image when you first saw it. Shoot it now.

©2018 Tom Vadnais Photography. All Rights Reserved.

Shoot It Now, Revisited

In the first Shoot It Now post, I described how a scene can unexpectedly change at almost any time when part of the subject is removed. Scenes can also be irrevocably altered when potential subjects are torn down, uprooted, broken, burned, or collapse. I had originally posted this a couple years ago, but not only did the subject cabin gradually collapse, it has now been torn down and almost completely removed. These photos show the progression.

During the Spring and Fall workshops at the Great Smoky Mountains Institute at Tremont (www.gsmit.org/photo.html), we always take participants to photograph details of the old, deteriorating homes in Elkmont. It’s one of our most popular shooting locations. There used to be dozens of old cabins, but only a few of them are now being saved and renovated by the National Park Service. All the rest have been torn down and removed.

As an aside, before the remaining houses are restored, they are in varying states of disrepair. The National Park Service prohibits anyone from going in some of them, and will ticket you if they catch you inside. This makes a lot of sense, since the floors, walls, and roofs could (and do) give way without warning. If you’re planning to photograph old structures anywhere, please be very careful about exploring inside them, and stay out if there is a No Trespassing sign. It’s for your safety.

One of the houses along Little River had a beautiful wooden staircase. Both the stairs and railing were dark brown, which contrasted well with the white ceiling and walls. I have photographed it several times from the collapsing wooden front porch through the always open front door. Fortunately, in addition to the front door, there were three windows just to the left of the staircase, and two across from it that let light into the room.

The first image shows the staircase in 2008. While it is the obvious subject, the subtle shadows on the wall beneath it add interest. Also, the window to the left both gives light and provides depth by showing part of the outside of the house.

Elkmont House Staircase - 2008

Elkmont House Staircase – 2008

By 2013, the roof began to cave in. Somehow, the window screen was still there, despite the window having fallen out. The staircase and its shadows are still the main subjects, but the story now includes the deterioration of the house around it.

Elkmont House Staircase - 2013

Elkmont House Staircase – 2013

Just a year later, the entire roof had collapsed into the room. The arrow highlights all that could be seen of the staircase anymore. Obviously, it could no longer be the subject of any photograph—except this one!

Elkmont House Staircase - 2014

Elkmont House Staircase – 2014

During 2017, the National Park Service took down and removed many of the cabins in Elkmont, including this one. All that remains of those are the stacked stone chimneys and the stone foundations. I certainly miss the old cabins, but am grateful I was able to see and photograph them before they were gone. Here is a view of what’s left of the cabin from where the front porch and door used to be.

Cabin with Elkmont staircase was removed by NPS. (ZEISS Otus 28mm f/1.4 on Nikon D850.)

So if you come across a potential subject, photograph it right then and there. You’ll never regret making an image of a particular subject, even if you make a better one later. But you’ll always regret not having photographed it, especially once it’s gone.

©2018 Tom Vadnais Photography. All Rights Reserved.

Nikon D850 Complete Guide by Thom Hogan

If you own, or are thinking of buying, a Nikon D850, you owe it to yourself to get a copy of Thom Hogan’s Complete Guide to the Nikon D850: Thom Hogan D850 Complete Guide I have bought Thom’s Complete Guide for every Nikon camera I have bought since my first D1x.
In his Complete Guides, Thom not only describes the myriad features of the camera bodies, but he suggests when and how to use each one, depending on the kind of photography you do. Want to know if Auto White Balance is a good choice for images made in incandescent light? Want to know which of the forty bracketing options might be useful under different lighting conditions? How about which autofocusing mode works best for your situation? And why? You’ll find suggested answers to these in this e-book.

It’s 1,081 pages, so it’s not something you’ll digest over lunch. But you’ll find you refer to it as long as you own your D850.

Highly Recommended.

Nikon D850 Review by Steve Perry

Without question, the Nikon D850 is the best camera I’ve ever owned. I love everything from how it handles to its astoundingly detailed image files. Even if you’ve read about it elsewhere online, you owe it to yourself to check out Steve Perry’s video and written reviews: Steve Perry’s Nikon D850 Review.

Steve is an amazing wildlife and bird photographer with real-world experiences using most current Nikon DSLRs. From his experiences shooting tens of thousands of frames with multiple cameras in numerous photo shoots, Steve gives unvarnished, hands-on insights into the pluses and minuses of each camera.

While you’re on his website, if you’re a Nikon shooter, you owe it to yourself to get his Nikon autofocus book. It’s invaluable. You’ll understand how all the modes work, and when best to use them: Secrets to Nikon Autofocus System.

Regardless of what camera system you use, any wildlife or bird shooter will greatly benefit from his Secrets to Stunning Wildlife Photography book: Secrets to Stunning Wildlife Photography. I don’t do much wildlife or bird photography myself, but I enjoyed and learned a lot from his book. After reading it, I’ve referred back to it a number of times for specific refreshers.

Steve’s blog posts and videos are well done, to the point, and chock full of information. Both books are well-written, immediately useful, and filled with wonderful images. Check it all out!

My Favorite Images of 2016

Yes, you read that right, even though I’m writing this in the last month of 2017. As I was deciding on my five favorite photos from 2017, I realized I had never posted my favorites from 2016. So, better late than never, here they are:

Grass in Dune Shadow. (Nikkor 80-400mm on Nikon D810.)

Grass in Dune Shadow. (Nikkor 80-400mm on Nikon D810.)

White Sands Yucca Pano. (Nikkor 80-400mm on Nikon D810.)

White Sands Yucca Pano. (Nikkor 80-400mm on Nikon D810.)

Backlit Tree at Elkmont. (ZEISS Otus 85mm f/1.4 on Nikon D810.)

Backlit Tree at Elkmont. (ZEISS Otus 85mm f/1.4 on Nikon D810.)

Clingmans Dome Sunset. (Nikkor 80-400mm on Nikon D810.)

Clingmans Dome Sunset. (Nikkor 80-400mm on Nikon D810.)

Boeing B-17 Flying Fortress Engines at Commemorative Air Force Museum, Mesa, AZ. (ZEISS Otus 55mm f/1.4 on Nikon D810.)

Boeing B-17 Flying Fortress Engines at Commemorative Air Force Museum, Mesa, AZ. (ZEISS Otus 55mm f/1.4 on Nikon D810.)

Remembering the discussion of “favorite” versus “best” images from an earlier post, these are my favorites because they not only showed what I had intended in the way I had intended with the quality I had intended, but they also satisfy me emotionally, and I still enjoy them.

I’ve still got almost a month of shooting to go before I have to determine my favorite images from 2017!

The Recency Effect, So Don’t Delete

Foothills Parkway, Smokies. (ZEISS Otus 85mm f/1.4 on Nikon D810.)

Foothills Parkway, Smokies. (ZEISS Otus 85mm f/1.4 on Nikon D810.)

I made this image in October 2015, but never thought of it again until December 1, 2017. Why did I let it languish? Obviously, the scene struck me enough to make the photograph. But I can’t explain why it took two years to do something with it.

Often, when I come back from a trip, I’m initially disappointed with the collection of images I made. Sure, I’ll have a couple I’ll send to friends to show where I’ve been shooting, but they’re not anything great. Later (and sometimes much later), I reluctantly look through them again, and am pleasantly surprised to find a couple, or even a few, images I really like. That’s always a fun discovery.

How about you? How many times have you gone back through your older, forgotten images and wondered why you hadn’t done anything with a specific image? Or, more poignantly, not only do you not remember making that image, but don’t even remember seeing an image like it before? Yet you made it!

Or how about the opposite effect? Several of my photo friends come back from a week shooting, and struggle for a few days to get down to their top 100 favorites from that trip. Ask them again in a couple months, and they’ll tell you they didn’t get anything at all from that very same trip!

What in the world is going on? That phenomenon is often called the recency effect. It can affect photographers in different ways—initially for good or bad. For some, their most recent images are all masterpieces, and they have a hard time choosing just a couple to show. But then, they lose interest in most of them. Others, like me, after an initial period of disappointment, find images they come to really like out of what seemed like a batch of rejects.

This leads to an important point. DON’T EVER delete images that don’t resonate with you the first time you see them. You made them for a reason. Let them simmer, and revisit them on occasion. You might be pleasantly surprised what’s already in your files.

Trains, Planes, & Automobiles Gallery

I’ve changed, renamed, and greatly expanded my old Steam Trains gallery. Yes, I know the movie title is Planes, Trains, & Automobiles, but since my new gallery used to be Steam Trains, I let trains keep top billing. http://tomvadnais.com/?page_id=352

Mid-50's GM PD-4501 Scenicruiser. (ZEISS Otus 85mm f/1.4 on Nikon D850.)

Mid-50’s GM PD-4501 Scenicruiser. (ZEISS Otus 85mm f/1.4 on Nikon D850.)

B-17G Flying Fortress. Commemorative Air Force Museum, Mesa, AZ. (ZEISS Milvus 15mm f/2.8 on Nikon D810.)

B-17G Flying Fortress. Commemorative Air Force Museum, Mesa, AZ. (ZEISS Milvus 15mm f/2.8 on Nikon D810.)

As an automotive engineer, I’ve always been fascinated by all forms of transportation. As a photographer, I am enthralled with both overall and detail images of these intricate machines. I hope these images inspire you to see, enjoy, and photograph trains, planes, and automobiles yourself.

ZEISS Milvus 1.4/25 mm and ZEISS Otus 1.4/28 mm Lenses

As mentioned on my Gear page, I almost exclusively use ZEISS manual focus prime lenses. I’m sold on their consistent color, sharpness, micro-contrast, and precise manual focusing ability. But before buying any new lens, I’ve gotten in the habit of renting one from LensRentals www.lensrentals.com. I can’t recommend the practice of renting before buying, and of renting from LensRentals highly enough.

For a recent trip to the Smokies, I rented a ZEISS Otus 28mm f/1.4 Apo Planar T* lens. I already own, and love, the ZEISS Otus 55mm and Otus 85mm (my favorite) lenses, and figured I’d love the 28mm Otus, too. Sure enough, it was the most amazing wide angle lens I’ve ever used. It was bitingly sharp corner-to-corner, with negligible aberrations or distortion. Even stars in the corners of night sky shots showed almost no coma. Silky smooth, beautiful, and incredible. I hated to return it, but still was not sure that I would find the 28mm focal length particularly useful—especially considering the price and the giant size of the lens.

With ZEISS’s recent announcement of the new Milvus 25mm f/1.4 lens, I decided to wait to try it before deciding on a new wide angle lens. I already own the ZEISS 25mm f/2 Distagon T* lens, which I regularly use for my engineering work. It’s wonderfully small and light, and perfect for my work kit. It’s quite sharp across much of the image, yet is just a little soft around the very edges and corners.The 28mm Otus proved that a wide angle lens can be sharp from corner-to-corner, with negligible distortion. But I wished it was just a little wider.

Before my return trip to the Smokies a couple weeks later, I noticed that LensRentals had the brand new 25mm f/1.4 Milvus lens available to rent. After nine days of shooting with it, all I can say is it was magnificent. It’s near-Otus quality for about half the price, in a smaller package with a smaller filter size, and less weight—plus it has weather sealing the Otus lenses lack. I absolutely loved it. I was only a little sad to send it back, though, because I put my name on the list at B&H to buy my own copy once they become available.

On my way home from the Smokies, I stopped by a long-abandoned motel near the GA/TN state line. I then parked my Toyota 4Runner TRD Pro at one end of the motel, and made the image above with the rented ZEISS Milvus 25mm f/1.4 lens on my Nikon D850.

Abandoned motel with 4Runner. (ZEISS Milvus 25mm f/1.4 on Nikon D850.)

It’s a single frame, with some of the top, a little of the bottom, and a tiny sliver of the right side cropped off. There was no cropping of the left side. Because the lens was so new, there was no lens profile available in Adobe Camera Raw, so what you’re seeing is how sharp and distortion-free this lens is right out of the box. Neither the bricks at the left nor my 4Runner at the right are distorted.

Images from my field testing were all incredibly sharp edge-to-edge and corner-to-corner. The lens was easy to focus and a joy to use. Can’t wait to get my copy.